Trainees in Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology should understand the design and interpretation of research studies, and the responsible use of informed consent. They should be able to critically assess the medical literature with regard to new therapies and techniques. A meaningful research experience, tailored to the needs of the individual trainee, is required.

Teaching method

All electrophysiology faculty participate in clinical research, with 1 faculty member (Dr. Kevin Kwaku) designated as the Director of Electrophysiologic Research. The trainee will be exposed to some of this research, including participation in multi-center studies as well as original research. Self-study and conferences represent other teaching methods.


  1. The design of various types of research studies.
  2. Interpretation of research studies, including basic statistics (confidence intervals, tests of statistical significance, linear correlation, multi-variate analysis, meta-analysis, and decision analysis).
  3. FDA requirements for informed consent and protection of human subjects.

Educational materials

  1. Fellow's Electronic Teaching File.
  2. Clinical material: Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology is a relatively new and dynamic field. Clinical research can be incorporated into the daily routine.


Even for trainees headed for a career in private practice, we require a minimum research exposure since we feel this is a scholarly activity that will make the clinical practitioner of Cardiac Electrophysiology critically aware of how the scientific basis of the field is advanced. The trainee is evaluated as part of the tutorial process, which is tailored in part to the research interests of the trainee. The resident has the opportunity to evaluate this part of the curriculum every 6 months in writing.

The principal faculty of Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology are heavily invested in patient care but are still committed to performing some clinical research. The trainees will have one half-day per week of protected time to pursue their chosen research.

Selected recent trainee research

  • Accelerated dosing of sotalol in atrial fibrillation
  • Conservative management of cardiac tamponade complicating electrophysiologic procedures
  • Assessing sinus node function post autonomic blockade in patients with syncope of undetermined etiology
  • Cryoablation for peri-nodal SVT
  • Alternative-site ventricular lead position
  • Achieving robust pulmonary vein isolation